Carlo Acerbi joined MSCI in 2009 and currently leads MSCI research on risk methodologies and liquidity. In the past he worked as a risk manager and as a financial engineer for major Italian banks, and as a senior expert in the risk practice of McKinsey & Co. He received a PhD in Theoretical Physics (SISSA – ISAS Trieste) before turning to finance in 1997. His main areas of interest are foundational problems in financial risk and liquidity risk, on which he has published in major international journals. He is a member of the board of The Journal of Risk.